Ingredients added in the manufacture of products to improve their appearance or keeping quality. These can include colours, flavours, stabilisers or emulsifiers. The idea that foods used to be more natural is something of a myth. It is also incorrect to think food additives today are more harmful than ever. With the benefit of scientific research and legislation covering food additives, many of those in use today are much safer than earlier products.
The oxygen in the air causes some foods to undergo changes which make them unfit to eat e.g. rancidity in fats. Antioxidants are added to products to prevent this occurring. Vitamin C and E are natural antioxidants, as are rosemary and sage.
Important bacteria found naturally in the human small intestine. Lactic acid bacteria L.acidophilus are used to ferment foods and to make yoghurt.
Important bacterial culture naturally present in the human large intestine flora. Also used to make yoghurt.
A mineral which is essential for building strong bones and teeth. The body also maintains some calcium in the blood for the nervous system and muscles to function properly. If losses of calcium from the bones are greater than the intake from the diet, there is a slow but steady loss of bone calcium. The bones gradually become less dense, lose some of their strength and the condition known as osteoporosis develops. Around menopause, changes in the female hormone, oestrogen, accelerate the loss of calcium from the bones. The denser the bones are to start with, the less the chances of osteoporosis. It is therefore important to have built up sufficient calcium in the bones over the previous 20 or 30 years. Dairy products are an excellent source of calcium.
A unit for measuring energy. The energy a food provides is determined by the amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat it contains. 1 calorie = 4.2 kilojoules.
Provide the major part of the energy in our diets and assist in the utilisation of fats. Carbohydrates consist of starch, sugars and some related substances such as sugar alcohols (eg. sorbitol) and organic acids (eg. citric acid). Carbohydrates are mainly found in cereal foods, fruits and vegetables. They may be in simple (sugars) or complex (starches and fibre) form.
i.e. Sugars occurring naturally, include;
Lactose - milk sugar
Sucrose - cane sugar
Fructose - fruit sugar
Maltose - malt sugar
Glucose - the simplest sugar
Refined sugars brown, raw, white, icing sugars, syrups e.g.
Are carbohydrates that require more digestion by the body, found in fruits, vegetables, cereals, grains and legumes.
Major protein in cow’s milk, about 80% of total protein content. Main component in cheddar cheese.
A waxy fat found only in foods of animal origin. Cholesterol is a vital part of cell membranes and certain hormones. It is used by the body in making vitamin D, is found in the brain and nerve cells and is used to make bile salts which are important in the digestion of fats.
The first milk that a cow produces for 4-5 days after calving. It differs in composition and properties from regular milk and is high in antibodies.
The fat component of milk.
Live and viable bacteria, such as lactobacillus acidophilus, bifido and GG.
Dietary Fibre (or roughage)
The indigestible material from plants and includes any plant polysaccharide for which humans have no appropriate enzyme to break down. Dietary fibre provides indigestible bulk which encourages the normal elimination of body wastes. A high fibre content also makes foods more filling or satisfying. There is some evidence that dietary fibre may be important in preventing bowel cancer. There is no doubt that people in Western countries will benefit from increasing their dietary fibre intake from the current low level of around 15g a day. A desirable level is estimated to be 30-40g a day. However it is important that this fibre comes from a variety of sources. e.g fruit, vegetables and cereals.
Substances which keep fats evenly distributed throughout a product. Commonly used emulsifiers include egg yolk and lecithin. Substances of both natural and synthetic origin that are employed to assist in preventing separation of oil and water soluble components in the product.
The Government Food Standards permit emulsifiers to be used in full fat or reduced fat yogurts to aid in the prevention of fat separation .
Values are given as kilojoules (kJ) or calories (cal). 1 cal = 4.2 kJ. Energy is not a nutrient, but represents the energy released from the food nutrients - fat, protein, carbohydrate and alcohol. Food energy is used for a range of body functions including muscular activity, the metabolic processes, heat production to maintain body temperature and the growth and building and renewing of new tissue.
Each nutrient will provide different amounts of energy:
Fat = 37 kJ per gram
Alcohol = 26 kJ per gram
Protein = 17 kJ per gram
Carbohydrate = 17 kJ per gram
Extended Shelf Life is a process where the product is ultrapasteurised or sterilised by Ultra High Temperature treatment (UHT) and then packaged in skived cartons. Unlike UHT products which are packaged in sterile TETRA BRIK, ESL products require refrigeration.
ESL cartons are constructed differently from regular cartons in that ESL cartons are skived. Skived cartons have more secure folds and joins on the inside of the carton. This prevents contamination from the bare cardboard edges and increases the strength of the carton by preventing liquid absorption through these unsealed edges.
More properly known as lipids, fats include compounds that are both solid and liquid (oils). Fats help to make foods palatable, carry some fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and also contain some fatty acids which are essential for humans. In Australian diets, fats contribute about 40% of the kilojoules - a level which is now considered to be too high.
Excessive amounts of fats contribute to high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. This, in turn, increases risks of coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and gallstones. A high-fat diet is also a risk factor for cancer of the bowel and for hormone-dependent cancers of the breast and uterus in women, and the prostate gland in men.
The gelatin used in all Pauls products is derived from beef hide and is Halal approved. Gelatin is used to thicken products, eg yogurts and dairy desserts.
A process which eliminates the tendency of milk fat to float in milk and form a cream line on the surface.
Milk is forced under pressure through fine holes which reduces the size of the fat globules and enables them to remain dispersed evenly throughout the milk. The effect of homogenisation has no effect on the nutritive value of the milk and has many advantages:
- Uniform distribution of fat, no cream line
- Whiter, more appetising colour
- More full bodied flavour
- Smooth creamy texture
- The milk forms a softer curd in the stomach and is easier to digest
A naturally occurring carbohydrate which is extracted from chicory root. Inulin is used in low fat products because of its ability to give a creamy smooth texture to products. Inulin is a dietary fibre and is believed to activate beneficial good bacteria in the digestive tract. The activation of these bacteria is thought to reduce the risk of bowel cancer. Inulin is a soluble form of fibre.
Combines with protein to form haemoglobin which carries oxygen to all body tissues and takes back carbon dioxide to the lungs. Some iron (from animal sources) is better absorbed than iron from plant sources. A lack of iron is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. The first signs of iron deficiency are a washed-out feeling, weakness, fatigue and a decreased ability for physical activity. Iron deficiency leads to anaemia with symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath, coldness, palpitations and pins and needles in the feet. The best sources of iron are meat, seafood and poultry.
A type of sugar – disaccharide , naturally found in milk.
Found in the fat derived from soy beans.
Solid portion dissolved.
Pasteurisation of milk is a very important process. Before it was introduced, milk was a dangerous source of infection as it is a perfect growth medium for micro organisms. Diseases such as tuberculosis and typhus were spread by milk.
Pasteurisation was invented by Louis Pasteur in the 1850s, he found it was possible to preserve liquids and some liquid foods such as milk, by applying a more gentle heating process than the boiling and autoclaving that were necessary to achieve sterility. This process killed the disease producing organisms. The process involved holding the liquid for half an hour at 65ºC and then cooling it.
Today the same results are achieved, both in terms of microbial stability and product protection, by pumping liquids continuously through heat exchangers to “shock” heat the product to 72ºC for 15 seconds and then “shock” cool it to 2ºC.
Pasteurisation kills the organisms that cause disease, but does not interfere with the taste or nutritious value of milk.
A mineral present in the body as phosphate, like calcium it is needed for the formation of bone tissue and plays other vital roles in the blood, nervous and enzyme systems.
Works with sodium to regulate the balance of water and acidity in the blood. Potassium also takes part in chemical reactions in the body and is vitally important for the transmission of impulses along the nerves which cause muscles, including the heart muscle, to contract.
Supplies the body with amino acids which are used for growth and repair of all body tissue. It can also be a source of energy. Protein from animal sources usually provides all the essential amino acids required by humans. Vegetable protein is usually deficient in one or more essential amino acids. Dietary advice for vegetarians recommends a combination of protein sources as the amino acids deficient in one source are made up by another e.g. legumes and bread.
The length of time a product may be stored without becoming unsuitable for use or consumption.
Fresh milk from which the cream has been removed, leaving less than 0.15% butterfat. The product is pasteurised and not homogenised.
Essential for maintaining the balance of body fluids. The requirements for sodium in healthy people is low, as levels are easily maintained. Australian adults should aim to consume between 920-2300 mg of sodium per day. Restricting excess sodium in the diet also appears important for controlling high blood pressure.
Substances added to foods to prevent parts of the item separating. They work in conjunction with emulsifiers. Emulsifiers produce the consistency and the stabilisers maintain it. Many stabilisers are derived from seaweeds or gums.
Standard Plate Count, The standard plate count of raw milk gives an indication of the total number of aerobic bacteria present in milk at the time of pickup from the farm. The test indicates the number of colony forming units in one ml of milk that is plated and incubated for 72 hrs at 320 C. Counts 10,000 cfu/mL and less are achievable and are considered excellent quality milk.
A fungal or bacterial culture that causes the beginning of the fermentation process
Food additives used to produce a thicker texture or consistency in foods. Includes gelatine, starches and vegetable gums which are used to thicken desserts, yogurts, cream and flavoured milks.
Brand name for machine which fills preformed cups.
UHT (Ultra Heat Treated)
Milk which is treated at very high tempertaures, extending the shelf life, meaning it can be kept for a long time if kept sealed
Milk which has been pasteurised at higher than normal tempartures, used to extend shelf life
Vegetable gums are a valuable source of soluble dietary fibre and have been shown to lower blood cholesterol levels. Gums are used to thicken foods such as desserts, yogurts and flavoured milks.
Vitamin A – Retinol
Essential for proper vision and bone and tooth development. It helps in the formation of the skin and mucous membrane, and enhances the body’s ability to resist infection.
Vitamin B1 – Thiamin
A water soluble vitamin which plays and essential role in releasing energy from carbohydrate and fat in the diet. It is also essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system and for cell reproduction.
Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
A water-soluble vitamin, which maintains healthy skin and eyes. It also helps to maintain the nervous system and releases energy to body cells through metabolism.
Vitamin B3 - Niacin
Like thiamin and riboflavin, is necessary for utilising energy in food. In addition, niacin promotes a normal appetite and aids digestion.
Plays a role in protein formation, aids in the development of normal blood cells, and helps maintain normal nerve tissue.
Vitamin C - Ascorbic Acid
Required for cell structure, maintaining healthy gums, teeth and strong blood vessel walls. Vitamin C is a powerful anti-oxidant and plays a role in enhancing the absorption of iron from food.
A fat soluble vitamin important for calcium and phosphate to be absorbed from the intestine into bones.
A fat soluble vitamin which is an important antioxidant which means that it prevents damage to cells from oxygen. It also provides protection against toxic chemicals such a ozone or nitrous oxide. Although claims are made that vitamin E will prevent aging, heart disease, enhance sexual prowess, there is no substantial evidence that it has such functions.
A fat soluble vitamin made by bacteria living in the human intestine. Essential for the normal clotting of blood.
The liquid left after milk has been coagulated to curds and the curds have been removed. Cottage cheese is an example of curds and whey.
Milk which has had no constituent (e.g. fat) removed.
Aids in energy metabolism and tissue formation. It is a co-factor for more than 90 body enzymes and is involved in many processes, including alcohol metabolism and wound healing.